History of the Gutenberg Printing Press – Taken from Wikipedia

Johannes Gutenberg 

Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed, circa 1439, a printing system by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making inventions of his own. Printing in East Asia had been prevalent since the Tang dynasty,[3][4] and in Europe, woodblock printing based on existing screw presses was common by the 14th century. Gutenberg’s most important innovation was the development of hand-molded metal printing matrices, thus producing a movable type based printing press system. His newly devised hand mould made possible the precise and rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities. Movable type had been hitherto unknown in Europe. In Europe, the two inventions, the hand mould and the printing press, together drastically reduced the cost of printing books and other documents, particularly in short print runs.

The printing press spread within several decades to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries.[5] By 1500, printing presses in operation throughout Western Europe had already produced more than twenty million volumes.[5] In the 16th century, with presses spreading further afield, their output rose tenfold to an estimated 150 to 200 million copies.[5] The operation of a press became synonymous with the enterprise of printing, and lent its name to a new medium of expression and communication, “the press”.[6]

In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication, which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities. The sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its peoples led to the rise of proto-nationalism, and accelerated by the development of European vernacular languages, to the detriment of Latin’s status as lingua franca.[7] In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale.

Johannes Gutenberg and the Printing Press

Adren Cooper

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Adren Cooper died on Thursday, November 16th, 2018. Born in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1927, he lived an extended life thanks to many great medical professionals who helped him with life saving procedures. He lived on dialysis treatments for over a year and lived with a mechanical heart valve for over 24 years, which gave him more time with his family. He was drafted to the U.S. Army on D-day and served stateside. He started his career as a journalist for the Arkansas Democrat in Little Rock and was one of many journalists who covered the forced integration of Little Rock Central High School. He was a journalist for the Associated Press, Inc. He and his family lived in Dallas, TX, Kansas City, MO, and Arlington, VA, during his eleven year time with the AP. He then was recruited to work for the US Department of Commerce, in Washington, DC, where he was a writer and editor for their Public Affairs Department. He retired from Commerce after 30 years. He lived in Alexandria and Annandale, VA.

He was predeceased by his parents, Helen R. Cooper (Bogy) and Adren Earl Cooper, Sr., his sisters, Carolyn Cooper, Eula Ruck, and Jane Tolbert, his brothers, Quentin Cooper and Warren Cooper and his son, Andrew Cooper. Survivors include his daughter, Ann Cummins of Jamaica, Vermont, his ex-wife Margaret Cooper of Cabot, AR, his sister Dr. Ruth Anne Cooper of Little Rock, AR, his sister Christine Spindel of Urbana, Illinois, his brother Howard Cooper of Indianapolis, Indiana, his daughter-in-law Hala Cooper of Springfield, Missouri. Many other relatives honored and loved him, including relatives as far flung as California, Oregon, Texas, Colorado, New York, New Jersey, Indiana, Illinois, Arkansas, and Tennessee.

His spirit of equality and fairness will live on in those who remember and honor him. He believed in truth in news and read the newspaper daily. There will be a service in Arkansas, where many of his surviving relatives live.

In lieu of flowers, donations in his name can be made to NAMI Vermont (www.namivt.org) or NAMI New Hampshire (www.naminh.org), where the funds will be used to help support, education and advocate for people and families of those living with mental health concerns.